Scientists have identified the formation of three planetary systems around the binary star system known as SVS 13.
At 980 light-years away, the binary star system and the intricate structures of the dust around it clearly show how planetary systems are born into this spectacular environment.
The research was approved by the scientific journal The Astrophysical Journal (he Astrophysical Journal). This review article is available on the arXiv server as a preprint server.
Combining three decades of research, an international team of scientists has come to this conclusion. A team of scientists has observed a pair of stars orbiting each other, confirming that these stars are surrounded by gas and dust.
Using the Largest Array (VLA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter / Submillimeter Array (ALMA), the scientific team examined the binary star system, SVS 13, at its nucleus. This study provides the best explanation ever found in the binary system in development.
Planets are formed by the gradual accumulation of ice and dust particles on protoplanetary disks that form stars. These models, which usually form only single stars, such as the Sun, have so far been believed.
However, most stars form binary systems in which two stars revolve around a common center. More information on how planets are born around these important binary star systems is not yet available.
However, the gravitational relationship between the two stars plays an important role in research on this.
“Our results show that each star has a gas and dust disk around it, and that, in addition, a large circle forms around the two stars,” said Ana Carla Diaz-Rodriguez, a researcher at IAA-CSIC and the UK. The ALMA Regional Center (UK-ARC) at the University of Manchester is leading the research.
“This outer circle shows a spiral system that feeds matter into individual disks, which may form planetary systems in the future.
The binary system SVS 13 consists of two star nuclei with a total mass similar to that of the Sun. The two stars in this system are very close to each other, only ninety times the distance between the Earth and the Sun.
This study has made it possible to know the composition of the gas, dust and ionized substances in the system. In addition, about 30 different molecules have been identified around the two protostars,
Of these, 13 are complex organic molecules, 7 of which were first detected in this system.
“When the planets begin to form around these two suns, there will be building blocks of life,” says Ana Carla Dias-Rodriguez.
The scientific team, along with observations of SVS 13 obtained by VLA for thirty years, and new data from ALMA, confirmed that the two stars have been in motion for many years.
Detected their orbits and the geometry and orientation of the system along with many basic parameters such as the mass of the protostars, the mass of the disks and their temperature.
The University of Manchester, which supports the study, believes that “it shows how carefully and systematically studies can provide a remarkably comprehensive view of the structure and properties of young stars”.